Raichur Fort

The original fort at Raichur, according to a long inscription on a slab on the western wall, was built by one Raja Vitthala by order of Raja Gore Gangayya Raddivaru, minister of the Kakatiya queen Rudramma Devi, in the Shaka year 1216 (A.D. 1924). The walls of this fort are constructed of huge blocks of well-dressed and nicely fitted stones, without the aid of any cementing material whatever. The outer wall, which is constructed of comparatively rough stone masonry, however, is the work of the Muslims, as is shown by the various inscriptions in Arabic and Persian on its bastions and gateways. There are two gateways in the Hindu fortifications (Sailani Darwaza in the west and Sikandari Darwaza in the east) and five in the Muslim fortifications (Mecca in the west, Naurangi in the north, Kati in the east, Khandak in the south and Doddi in the south-west). The outer wall is enclosed by a deep moat on three sides, the fourth (or the southern) side being naturally defended by a row of three rocky hills, all fortified with massive ramparts. Inside the fort-walls, there are a number of old buildings and mosques of considerable archaeological interest, several of them containing inscriptions commemorating their erection during the later Bahmani and the Adil Shahi periods. The inscription referred to above is carved on a gigantic slab, about 42 feet in length, fitted in the western face of the Hindu defence. A number of drawings have been carved on this wall, at least one of which deserves a special mention here.

A little distance to the right of the above epigraph, is depicted the process by which the large inscribed slab was brought from the quarry to the site, laden on a solid-wheeled cart drawn by a long team of buffaloes with men driving and cudgelling the animals and applying levers at the wheels to push the cart forward. The artistic treatment in delineating the line of buffaloes in perspective, and the lively and graphic expression of the strain on them as represented by means of depicting some with tongues lolling out of their mouths, some with bent waists, and others with tails curled and lifted up as is usually seen when these animals are put to extra strain, is indeed a marvel of the art of drawing, particularly when the age of the work is taken into consideration. Further to the right is carved a procession scene of six chariots, drawn by humped bulls with decorative collars round their necks, and a little distance to the south is carved a forest scene with palmyra trees. On various other slabs in the same wall are incised floral and foliage designs as well as numerous figures of men engaged in various activities, and also animals and birds, like bulls, elephants, boars, jackals, cocks, peacocks, geese, etc., all executed in the same delightful manner. The bala hisar or citadel, situated on the middle and loftiest of the hills on the southern side, is approached partly by a flight of steps near the south-west corner of the Hindu wall and partly by a gradual slope which is by no means difficult of ascent. It stands on an irregularly shaped platform and contains mainly, a durbar hall, a small one-arched mosque in Bijapur style, a dargah called Panch Bibi Dargah and a square cistern now filled up with earth.



Mudgal Fort

The Mudgal fort consists of a citadel perched on a hill protected by a line of outer fortifications on the plain. These outer fortifications consist of a wide moat, the width of which varies reaching a s much as 50 yards at some places, followed by a scarp with a row of bastions and, after that, a narrow covered passage and finally a counter scarp with very massive bastions. The courses of masonry at several places are of Hindu style; but the arch-shaped parapet is Muslim in design. On a massive bastion opposite the Fateh Darwaza has been placed a gun with a Kannada inscription near the muzzle. The bala-hisar (citadel), already referred to, commands a good view of the interior of the fort as well as the surrounding country. The hill has been strengthened at points by walls and bastions, there being a large bastion in the middle of the hill also. There are a number of natural caverns and depressions on the hill and in the western part of the fort is a large cistern – about 140 yards long and 40 to 50 yards broad.